331 BC - Alexander the Great defeats Darius III of Persia in the Battle of Gaugamela.
1653 - Russian parliament accepts annexation of Ukraine
1787 - Russians under Suvorov defeat the Turks at Kinburn.
1795 - Belgium is conquered by France.
1827 - The Russian army under Ivan Paskevich storms Yerevan, ending a millennium of Muslim domination in Armenia.
1829 - South African College is founded in Cape Town, South Africa; later to separate into the University of Cape Town and the South African College Schools.
1892 - University of Chicago opens
1898 - The Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration is founded under the name k.u.k. Exportakademie.
1943 - Germans attack Jews in Denmark
1949 - People's Republic of China proclaimed by Mao Zedong (National Day)
1953 - Indian state of Andhra Pradesh partitioned from Madras
1960 - Nigeria gains independence from Britain (National Day)
1963 - Nigeria becomes a republic within Commonwealth
1978 - Comoros adopts constitution
1979 - Nigeria adopts constitution, Alhaji Shagari becomes president
1987 - Fiji's constitution is suspended
1990 - Serbs in Croatia proclaim autonomy
1990 - Saddam Hussein says he may be willing to negotiate the occupation of Kuwait and would consider foreign participation in negotiations